Renewable Energy: Policy and Strategy

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Published

December 18, 2023

HOW TO CITE

Sudi Ariyanto (ed)

National Research and Innovation Agency

Septina Is Heriyanti (ed)

National Research and Innovation Agency

DOI: https://doi.org/10.55981/brin.900

Keywords:

Renewable Energy, policy, strategy, sustainable, economic development

Synopsis

Renewable energy is generally referred to energy that may be renewed. Recently, attention to the use of renewable energy has been increasing, including in Indonesia. Since renewable energy comes from nature and uses natural resources, Indonesia has considerable resources that can potentially be used to produce renewable energy. Responding to this, it is essential to see how renewable energy is utilized, which is discussed in this book.

This book conveys the discussion of renewable energy from the perspective of Indonesia’s condition. Chapters in the book address many aspects of new and renewable energy discourse, including technology, policy and regulation, financial strategy, and social aspects. Written by various qualified authors in each field, this book shows how collaboration is much needed in implementing the strategy and policy for the use of new and renewable energy in Indonesia.

Renewable Energy: Policy and Strategy is hoped to be a valuable source of knowledge concerning new and renewable energy solutions. Several recommendations can be implemented, and this book is here to become a reference for policymakers in achieving the target of net zero emissions.

Prolog: Embracing the Future with Things May Renewed

Sudi Ariyanto, Septina Is Heriyanti

DOI: https://doi.org/10.55981/brin.900.c809

Chapter 1

Ocean-Renewable Energy in Indonesia: A Brief on the Current State and Development Potential

Ristiyanto Adiputra, Muhammad Iqbal Habib, Erwandi, Aditya Rio Prabowo, Adnan Sandy Dwi Marta, Wahyu Widodo Pandoe, Navik Puryantini, Ruly Bayu Sitanggang, Achmad Nurfanani

DOI: https://doi.org/10.55981/brin.900.c782

Chapter 2

The Conversion of Jakarta City Solid Waste into Electrical Energy

Parino Rahardjo

DOI: https://doi.org/10.55981/brin.900.c783

Chapter 3

Renewable Energy and Sustainability: Assessment Based on the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

Yogi Sugiawan, Falikul Fikri, Shunsuke Managi

DOI: https://doi.org/10.55981/brin.900.c784

Chapter 4

Regulatory Frameworks for Renewable Energy

Rachmat Trijono

DOI: https://doi.org/10.55981/brin.900.c785

Chapter 5

Green and Renewable Energy Financing Policy in Indonesia

Eko Eddya Supriyanto

DOI: https://doi.org/10.55981/brin.900.c786

Chapter 6

Cash Waqf Linked Sukuk and Renewable Energy: Potential, Model, Strategy

Siswantoro

DOI: https://doi.org/10.55981/brin.900.c787

Chapter 7

Communication Development and Youth Empowerment in Renewable Energy

Susri Adeni, Machyudin Agung Harahap, Titien Yusnita

DOI: https://doi.org/10.55981/brin.900.c788

Chapter 8

Epilog: Sprint with Renewable Energy towards Net Zero Emissions 2060

Septina Is Heriyanti, Sudi Ariyanto

DOI: https://doi.org/10.55981/brin.900.c810

Chapter 9

Author Biographies

Sudi Ariyanto, National Research and Innovation Agency

Sudi Ariyanto, a researcher at National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), has long been involved in the field of nuclear technology. Currently, he is a senior researcher and expert at the Nuclear Reactor Technology Research Center. He studied doctorate in Nuclear Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, in 1996. During his working period, Sudi Ariyanto held the position of Head of the Education and Training Center, BATAN (2015–2019), as Head of the Human Resources and Organization Bureau, BATAN (2020–2021), and Acting Director of Directorate of Competency Development, BRIN (2021–2022). He has produced many publications, such as Thermo-hydraulics of boiling two-phase flow in high conversion light water reactors (thermo-hydraulics at low velocities), Economy Aspect For Nuclear Desalination Selection in Muria Peninsula, Status of Nuclear Power Plant Development in Indonesia, Relaxation Process of Thermal Non-Equilibrium in Boiling Two-Phase Flow,(I) Experimental Results, Competence Development of Research Reactors Personnel in Indonesia, Capacity building in Nuclear Area with Particular Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Introduction, etc. The email that can be contacted is sudi004@brin.go.id.

Septina Is Heriyanti, National Research and Innovation Agency

Septina Is Heriyanti is a researcher at the National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN). She obtained a bachelor’s degree in Chemistry from Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia, and a master’s degree in Energy Science from Kyoto University, Japan. She has expertise in the fields of chemistry and energy science. She has been involved in energy-related research activities since 2009, starting with research on clean coal and bio-energy technology. She is currently focusing on research related to biogas and its derivatives. Her interest in the energy sector has resulted in many publications, such as Synthesis of green diesel from waste cooking oil through hydrodeoxygenation technology with NiMo/γ-Al2O3 catalysts, Pyrolysis behaviors of Japanese cedar heartwood and sapwood focusing on extractives, Synthesis of Renewable Diesel from Pure Plant Oil of Kapuk (Ceiba pentandra) Seed Using NiMo/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts, The Effect of Metal Impregtion Of Fe Cu And Co on Surface Area of ZSM-5 Catalyst Analyzed Using Surface Area Analyzer (AAS), etc. She is also active as a section editor in several journals such as Jurnal Energi dan Lingkungan. The email that can be contacted is sept003@brin.go.id.

Ristiyanto Adiputra, National Research and Innovation Agency

Ristiyanto Adiputra graduated in Naval Architecture from Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya, Indonesia, in 2014. He then obtained his Master of Engineering degree in 2017 and his Doctor of Engineering degree in 2019 from the Department of Maritime Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan. He started his career as an assistant professor at the Ocean Energy Resources Laboratory of Kyushu University from 2019 to 2021. Currently, he is a researcher at the Research Center for Hydrodynamics Technology, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Indonesia. His research interests cover the reliability and hydrodynamics of marine structures, the Internal Flow Effects (IFE) of marine piping systems, and ocean energy utilization. He recently devoted himself to the development and implementation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and Offshore Wind Turbine (OWT) in Indonesia. Email: ristiyanto.adiputra@brin.go.id.

Muhammad Iqbal Habib, National Research and Innovation Agency

Muhammad Iqbal Habib is a recent graduate with a bachelor’s degree from Universitas Sebelas Maret, majoring in mechanical engineering with a specialization in design and construction. Iqbal’s primary research focus is on the field of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), particularly in the dynamic analysis of OTEC components such as the Cold Water Pipe, using numerical methods like the finite element method. Additionally, Iqbal actively contributes to research related to the potential development of OTEC technology and the feasibility of OTEC energy and installations in Indonesia. He also has a strong interest in marine energy research and ocean renewable energy, and in this regard, Iqbal has participated in several research projects related to these topics. Email: iqbalhabibarch@gmail.com

Erwandi, National Research and Innovation Agency

Erwandi received a bachelor’s degree in Naval Architecture from Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology Surabaya, Indonesia, in 1990. He finished a Master of Engineering degree in Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, from the Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Japan, in 1999 and a Ph.D. degree in Global Architecture, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Japan, in 2002. He is currently working as a senior researcher at the Research Center for Hydrodynamics Technology, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Indonesia. His areas of interest include ship hydrodynamics, numerical hydrodynamics, ocean renewable energy converter, and the development of measurement techniques in the hydrodynamics laboratory in Surabaya. His recent research topic is the development of a marine current turbine converter that suitable for Indonesian water. He can be reached at: erwandi@brin.go.id.

Aditya Rio Prabowo, Sebelas Maret University

Aditya Rio Prabowo is currently acting as Assistant Professor in Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret (UNS), Surakarta, Indonesia. He finished his Ph.D. in Marine Convergence Design at Pukyong National University, South Korea, in 2018. He served as Head of Laboratory of Design and Computational Mechanics in UNS since 2019. Various research topics were studied by him since then, including, safety and crasworthiness, fast boat design and structural behavior. In recent years, he involved in researchs and grants related to marine structure supproting new and renewable energies, e.g., Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion and Floating Offshore Wind Turbine. Besides his duty as lecturer and researcher, he also actives as supervisors. Under collaboration with Research Center for Hydrodynamic Technology BRIN, his students published notable results in several journals, such as Ocean Engineering, Energy Reports, Results and Engineering, and Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters. Email: aditya@ft.uns.ac.id.

Adnan Sandy Dwi Marta, National Research and Innovation Agency

Adnan Sandy Dwi Marta is currently pursuing a Master of Engineering Degree in the field of Energy Conversion at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Indonesia. He has been awarded a research degree scholarship by National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN). He completed his undergraduate education in Mechanical Engineering at Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM). Before continuing his postgraduate studies, he worked as a researcher at the Hydrodynamic Technology Research Center, BRIN, in 2020, and previously worked at Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology Indonesia (BPPT) since 2015. His research interests are in the field of ocean energy, with a focus on fluid mechanics and ocean wave energy conversion. However, he also has a strong interest in computational fluid dynamics and fluid dynamics. Email: adna001@brin.go.id.

Wahyu Widodo Pandoe, National Research and Innovation Agency

Wahyu Widodo Pandoe is currently working as a senior engineer at the Research Center for Hydrodynamics Technology, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Indonesia. He obtained his undergraduate degree from the Bandung Institute of Technology from the Department of Geodetic Engineering in 1991. He completed his Master of Science degree in 2000 and the Doctoral degree in 2004 in Ocean Engineering Department at Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA. He was involved in the formation of the Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (InaTEWS), especially in the design and operation of Tsunami Buoys in Indonesia. His research is mainly in Tsunami Early Warning Systems for tsunamis and maritime climate observations, 3D Hydrodynamic Numerical Models, Coastal Zones/Ocean Observation, and various marine engineering works, include under water pipe/cable laying route assessment. He is currently appointed in BRIN as the Chairman of the Indonesia National Committee for IOC-UNESCO Programme 2023-2025.

Navik Puryantini, National Research and Innovation Agency

Navik Puryantini is currently working as a researcher at Research Center for Hy-drodynamics Technology, Organizational Research for Energy and Manufacture, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN). She finished her Master of Ac-counting from Airlangga University in 2017 with a scholarship from state account-ability revitalization project Indonesia’s National Government Internal Auditor (STAR BPKP). Her research interests are in ocean energy conver-sion technology, socio-economy and policy of ocean energy. Email: navi001@brin.go.id.

Ruly Bayu Sitanggang, State Electricity Company

Ruly Bayu Sitanggang finished his bachelor degree in material engineering from the Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) in 2007, and work as a power plant operation and maintenance engineer from 2008 in PT PLN (Persero), a state-owned electric company in Indonesia. After more than 7 years in power plant sector and learning how power plant operation and maintenance works, Ruly decided to pursue higher education and finished his Master of Engi-neering degree in System Energy Engineering from The University of Indonesia. From 2018, Ruly started his careers in PLN Research Institute as a researcher with research interest ranging from renewable energy, energy economics and power plant performance. Email: rully. bs@pln.co.id

Achmad Nurfanani, State Electricity Company

Achmad Nurfanani completed his Bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Jember (UNEJ), Indonesia, in 2013. After graduated, he worked in the private biodiesel industry for 3 years, and then, in 2017, joined the Indonesian Government-owned State Electricity Company (PLN). While joining PLN, he worked for 6 years as an internal auditor focusing on engineering. Then, in 2023, he joined PLN Research Institute as a researcher, focusing on primary energy. After focusing on energy for 9 years, in 2023 he received a study assignment opportunity from PLN to continue his studies at the Master of Electrical Engineering at the PLN Institute of Technology (IT-PLN). Email: ach.nurfanani@pln.co.id

Parino Rahardjo, Tarumanagara University

Parino Rahardjo is a Doctor of Environmental Sciences from the University of Indonesia. His research interests are in the fields of Urban Ecosystems, Social Problems, Disaster Mitigation, Social Entrepreneurship. Besides his interest in research, he also has experience as a practitioner in environmental planning, especially landscape planning. He currently actives as a lecturer at Tarumanagara University, Indonesia, in the Regional and Urban Planning Study Program. Email: parinor19@gmail.com

Yogi Sugiawan, National Research and Innovation Agency

Yogi Sugiawan is a Senior Policy Analyst at the National Research and Innovation Agency of Indonesia (BRIN). He received his doctoral degree in Urban and Environmental Engineering from Kyushu University, Japan. His research interests include energy and environmental economics, natural resource economics, and sustainable development. He has published several papers in reputable peer reviewed journals such as Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Applied Energy, and Energy Policy. Email: yogi.sugiawan@brin.go.id

Falikul Fikri, National Research and Innovation Agency

Falikul Fikri is a Senior Planner at the National Research and Innovation Agency of Indonesia (BRIN). He got his bachelor degree in Engineering Physics from Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Indonesia. As a strategic planner at Reseearch Organization of Nuclear Energy of BRIN, he responsible for formulating and implementing strategic plans related to research, development, and utilization of nuclear energy. He has published several papers and policy briefs in this field. Email: fali001@brin.go.id

Shunsuke Managi, Kyushu University

Shunsuke Managi is a Distinguished Professor of Technology and Policy and the Director of the Urban Institute at Kyushu University, Japan. He earned his doctoral degree in Environmental and Natural Resource Economics from University of Rhode Island, USA. He is a prolific researcher and author on topics such as sustainability, urbanization, energy, climate change, and well-being. He has published more than 500 research papers and 30 books, and has received several awards and honors for his academic contributions. He is also an editor of Environmental Economic and Policy Studies and on the editorial board for six reputable journals including Resource and Energy Economics. Email: managi@doc.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Rachmat Trijono, National Research and Innovation Agency

Rachmat Trijono works as a researcher at the National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN). His last education was doctoral degree. Teaching at Djuanda University, As-syafi’yah Islamic University, and ASEAN University, Indonesia. He has written several books including: Politik Hukum: Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kebijakan, Dasar-dasar Statistika Hukum, Kamus Hukum, Sistem Hukum Nasional: Teori dan Praktek, dan lainnya.

Eko Eddya Supriyanto, STKIP Nahdlatul Ulama Tegal

Eko Eddya Supriyanto was born in Tegal in 1988. He studied his bachelor’s degree at the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Pancasakti, Tegal, Indonesia, then continued his second degree at the master’s in Political Science, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia, with a concentration in Local Politics. Currently, he is continuing his doctoral studies at the Public Administration Doctoral Study Program at Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia. He has joined several NGOs such as PUPUK Tegal branch, the Sultan Agung Study Institute, and was also a Research Staff at PT. Sinergi Consulting Group Yogyakarta. Currently, he is a lecturer and researcher at STKIP Nahdlatul Ulama Tegal, Indonesia, and as Research Director at Nusantara Training and Research based in Salatiga City, as well as a visiting researcher at the Green Governance Institute. Some of his studies interest are related to Public Policy, Green Governance, Green Investment, Tech-Govt, Pancasila, Sustainable Development, and Character Education. He can be contacted at email: edha.fisip@gmail.com and his short profile is at http://s.id/ekoeddya

Siswantoro, State University of Semarang

Siswantoro was born in Pemalang in 1998. He graduated from the undergraduate program at the Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Negeri Semarang in 2021, majoring in Economic Education. He has served as a scientific journal assistant at the Economics Education Analysis Journal. Since college, he has been interested in research and writing. He served as head of the research and scientific community at his faculty in 2019. Another organization he has participated in is the Indonesian New Generation (Genbi) community which is hosted by Bank Indonesia. Currently, he has published more than 10 journal articles, two book chapters, and one newspaper article. His research focuses on economics (conventional or Islamic), accounting and finance (public or private sector), green economy, and/or green financing. Contact him via e-mail Siswantoro2798@gmail.com.

Susri Adeni, Bengkulu University

Susri Adeni is a lecturer at the Department of Communication Sciences, Bengkulu University, Indonesia. She completed her bachelor’s degree at the Department of Communication Sciences, Bengkulu University, with honors and was the best graduate in 2004. She completed her master’s studies at the Master of Communication and Media Studies at Monash University, Australia in 2008 with a Very Satisfactory Thesis title, with a scholarship from the Australian government. In 2019, She completed her Doctoral studies of Agricultural and Rural Development Communication Science at the IPB University with the title Very Satisfactory by obtaining BPPN DIKTI scholarship. Since graduating from Masters, she has been active in participating in seminar forums and writing scientific articles at both national and international levels. She also published some book chapters, i.e., Social Media Ethics: Concepts and Application in Communication Today in 2022; New Momism in Media Framework in Women and Media in 2021; Role of Media in Crisis of Management in Public Relations and Communication Crisis in 2017; and Internet and Democracy: Is It An Ambiguity Of New Agent for Democracy? In Communication and Politics in 2011. The author took part in the Islamic Young Leaders Program in 2009 from Leiden University at Utrecth University, The Netherlands, and the Keizo Obuchi Research Fellowship under the UNESCO program in 2011, and became a research fellow at Flinders University, Australia. The focus of the author’s study is development communication, media, women and children, and family communication. Email: susriadeni@gmail.com

Machyudin Agung Harahap, National Development University Veteran Jakarta

Machyudin Agung Harahap is a lecturer in Communication Science at the National Development University (UPN) Veteran Jakarta, Indonesia. He completed a Bachelor’s Degree in Journalism at the Institute of Social and Political Sciences (IISIP) Jakarta, a Master’s Degree in Development Communication at IPB University, and a Master’s Degree in Communication Science at Padjadjaran University, Bandung, Indonesia. The author has published several books, including Social Media Ethics: Concepts and Application in the book Communication Today in 2021, Media Capitalism in 2013, Mass Communication: 100 Days of SBY-JK in 2011, TV Journalism in 2007 and Television Journalism: Techniques for Hunting and Writing News (supervisory editor) in 2007. Apart from that, he is also active in writing in national and international journals. He was a Detaser DIKTI in 2011, 2012, and 2013. The focus of his studies is communication, journalism, and media. Email: machyudinagung@gmail.com

Titien Yusnita, Sahid Bogor Islamic Institute

She is a lecturer in the Islamic Communication and Broadcasting study program at the Sahid Bogor Islamic Institute (INAIS), Indonesia. She is a graduate of French Literature at the YAPARI Bandung Foreign Language College in 1996, then in 2012 she continued her Masters Degree in the Agricultural and Rural Development Communication (KMP) study program at IPB University and graduated in 2015. After that, she continued again at IPB University on the same study program for doctoral level. She teaches Communication Psychology course and the scope of her research focuses on the theme of child marriage and the impact of cases of child marriage. A number of her published works include: Choose school or marriage? Self awareness and education to prevent child marriage in Cinangneng Village, Kab. Bogor (2022), Pluralistic families? Why do they let their children get married early (2022), Student perceptions about child marriage decisions in Pamijahan District (2022), The Role of Non-Verbal Communication in Early Marriage Decisions in Pamijahan District, Bogor Regency (2022), Family communication patterns of child marriage and family functioning in Bogor Regency (2021). She is also active in social organizations as Public Relations and Fundraising for LAZISMU Bogor City (2022) and Aisyiyah Regional Manager for Bogor City as Deputy General Chair 2 for Education and Health (2022–2027). Email: titienyusnita70@gmail.com.

References

Asian Development Bank (2020). Renewable Energy Tariffs and Incentives in Indonesia: Review and Recommendations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22617/TCS200254

Erdiwansyah, Gani, A., Nurdin, M.H., Mamat, R. and R.E Sarjono, R.E. (2022). Policies and laws in the application of renewable energy Indonesia: A reviews, AIMS Energy, Volume 10, Issue 1, 23–44. DOI: 10.3934/energy.2022002

Intenational Energy Agency (2 September 2022). IEA Press Release, Indonesia’s push to reach net zero emissions can help power a new phase in its economic development. , https://www.iea.org/news/indonesia-s-push-to-reach-net-zero-emissions-can-help-power-a-new-phase-in-its-economic-development. Accessed 25 August 2023

International Renewable Energy Agency (2023). Socio-economic Footprint of the Energy Transition: Indonesia. IRENA. https://www.irena.org/Publications/2023/Jan/Socio-economics-of-the-energy-transition-Indonesia. Accessed 26 August 2023

Chontanat, J. (2020). Relationship Between Energy Consumption, CO2 Emission and Economic Growth in ASEAN: Cointegration and Causality Model. Energy Reports Volume 6, Supplement 1, February 2020, Pages 660-665. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2019.09.046

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Topolewski, L. (2021). Relationship between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in European Countries: Evidence from Dynamic Panel Data Analysis, Energies, 14(12), 3565; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123565

Tiawon, H. and Miar, M. (2023). The Role of Renewable Energy Production, Energy Efficiency and Green Finance in Achieving Sustainable Economic Development: Evidence from Indonesia, International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 13(1), 250-260. https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.13915

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