Elite Lokal dan Perampasan Modernitas: Kasus di Sumba Timur

Screenshot 2024-01-30 153204

Categories



Published

August 19, 2022

HOW TO CITE

Y Argo Twikromo

Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta

DOI: https://doi.org/10.55981/brin.486

Keywords:

Lokal Elite, Politik Lokal, Sumba, Indonesia Timur

Synopsis

Buku ini tidak hanya semata membahas tentang adat Sumba, akan tetapi tentang pengaruh kekuasaan “tradisional” maupun “modern” pada sebuah daerah yang relatif jauh dari pusat pemerintahan “modern”. Sebagian besar fokus bahasan dalam buku ini menganalisis peran birokrasi pemerintahan dan kebijakan nasional yang difokuskan pada peran masyarakat lokal
khususnya elite lokal.
Semoga buku ini dapat memberi kontribusi bagi perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan, memberikan pemahaman terhadap peran masyarakat lokal khususnya pelaku utama yaitu elite lokal yang sering kali memberikan refleksi dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari kita.

Author Biography

Y Argo Twikromo, Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta

Lahir di Purwokerto, 31 Mei 1964. Doktor Antropologi dari Radboud University Nijmegen, Belanda. Master of Art Antropologi dari Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Filipina. Sarjana Antropologi dari Universitas Gadjah Mada. Staf Pengajar FISIP Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta. Anggota Dewan Kebudayaan Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Periode 2020–2022. Peneliti MINDSET Institute – Research and Policy Studies (September 2019–sekarang). Tim Ahli Warisan Budaya Takbenda Indonesia, Direktorat Pelindungan Kebudayaan, Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan, Kementerian Pendidikan, Kebudayaan, Riset, dan Teknologi (Maret 2016–sekarang). Ketua Pusat Studi Kawasan Indonesia Timur (PUSKIT), Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta (2014–sekarang). Wakil Ketua II Dewan Kebudayaan Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Periode 2014–2018. Peneliti Senior pada Centre for Pacific and Asian Studies (CPAS), Radboud University Nijmegen, Belanda (Juli 2010–Februari 2017). Tenaga Pengajar Tamu pada Program Pasca Sarjana (S2), Program Studi Antropologi, FIB Universitas Gadjah Mada (2008–2019). Grassroots Program Officer pada Christian Children’s Fund, Indonesia Office, Jakarta (Januari 1990–Januari 1992). Pengharagaan: Budayawan kategori Pelestari Budaya tahun 2019, Pemerintah Kabupaten Sleman, DIY. SPIN Postdoc Research Award dari de Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen-KNAW (the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences) untuk riset: The Politics of Diversity: National Politics, Local Elites and the Management of Socio-cultural Heterogeneity in Yogyakarta, Indonesia (1 Mei 2010–30 April 2012).
Buku-buku yang ditulis, antara lain, (1) Sinau Bareng Tata Nilai Budaya. ­Yogyakarta: Dinas Kebudayaan DIY, 2022; (2) Mewujudkan Keharmonisan Kehidupan di Bumi Nusantara. Yogyakarta: Dinas Kebudayaan DIY, 2021; (3) Mitologi Kanjeng Ratu Kidul. Yogyakarta: Nidia Pustaka, 2006; (4) Tragedi Udin: Bingkai Kebusukan Kekuasaan dan Kekerasan. Yogyakarta: Galang Press, 2001; (5) Ratu Kidul. Yogyakarta: Bentang Budaya, 2000; (6) Pemulung Jalanan Yogyakarta: Konstruksi Marginalitas dan Perjuangan Hidup dalam Bayang-Bayang Budaya Dominan. Yogyakarta: Media Pressindo, 1999; (7) Gelandangan Yogyakarta: Suatu Kehidupan dalam Bingkai Tatanan Sosial-Budaya “Resmi”. Yogyakarta: Penerbitan Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta, 1999; (8) Persepsi dan Perilaku Kesejahteraan Hidup Rakyat Timor Timur. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan, 1995. E-mail: argotwikromo@gmail.com dan argo.twikromo@uajy.ac.id

References

Adams, Marie Jeanne. 1969. System and Meaning in East Sumba Textile Design: A Study in Traditional Indonesian Art. Seri Laporan Budaya No. 16. New Haven: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies.

________. 1973. “Structural Aspects of a Village Art.” American Anthropologist 75 (1)(Februari 1973): 265-279.

________. 1974. “Symbols of the Organized Community in East Sumba, Indonesia.” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-En Volkenkunde 130: 324-347.

________. 1980. “Structural Aspects of East Sumbanese Art.” Dalam James J. Fox (ed.). The Flow of Life: Essay on Eastern Indonesia. Cambridge, Massachusetts, dan London: Harvard University Press. Halaman 208-220.

Adams, Moni. 1966. Life and Death on Sumba. Rotterdam: Museum voor Land- en Volkenkunde te Rotterdam.

________. 1971. “History in a Sumba Myth.” Asian Folklore Studies 30: 133-139.

________. 1981. “Instruments and Songs of Sumba, Indonesia: A Preliminary Survey.” Asian Music 13 (1): 73-83.

Adas, Michael. 1981. “From Avoidance to Confrontation: Peasant Protest in Precolonial and Colonial Southeast Asia.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 23 (2) (April 1981): 217-247.

________. 1986. “From Footdragging to Flight: The Evasive History of Peasant Avoidance Protest in South and South-east Asia.” Dalam James C. Scott dan Benedict J. Tria Kerkvliet (ed.). Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance in South-East Asia. London: Frank Cass and Company, Ltd. Halaman 64-86.

Anderson, Benedict R.O’G. 1972. “The Idea of Power in Javanese Culture.” In Claire Holt, Benedict R.O’G. Anderson dan James Siegel (ed.). Culture and Politic in Indonesia. London: Cornell University Press. Halaman 1-69.

________. 1990. Language and Power: Exploring Political Culture in Indonesia. New York: Cornell University Press.

________. 1998. The Spectre of Comparisons: Nationalism, Southeast Asia and the World. London: Verso.

________. 2001. Imagined Communities: Komunitas-Komunitas Terbayang (Terjemahan). Yogyakarta: Insist dan Pustaka Pelajar.

Bailey, F.G. 1970. Stratagems and Spoils: A Social Anthropology of Politics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Barth, Fredrik (ed.). 1969. Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organization of Culture Difference. London: George Allen & Unwin.

Barth, Fredrik. 1981. Process and Form in Social Life (Essay Terpilih dari Fredrik Barth: Volume I). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

________. 1993. Balinese Worlds. Chicago dan London: The University of Chicago Press.

Bebbington, A. dan kawan-kawa. 2004. “Village Politics, Culture and Community-Driven Development: Insights from Indonesia.” Progress in Development Studies 4 (3)(2004): 187-205.

Beding, B. Michael dan S. Indah Lestari Beding. 2002. Ringkiknya Sandel Harumnya Cendana, The Neigh of Sandalwood Horses, The Fragrance of Sandalwood. Waingapu: Pemda Kabupaten Sumba Timur.

Betke, Friedhelm dan Hamonangan Ritonga. 2002. Managers of Megalithic Power: Towards an Understanding of Contemporary Political Economy in East Sumba. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik dan PRODA-NT/GTZ.

Biro Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Sumba Timur. 2002a. Pahunga Lodu Dalam Angka 2001. Waingapu: BPS Kabupaten Sumba Timur.

________. 2002b. Sumba Timur Dalam Angka 2001. Waingapu: BPS Kabupaten Sumba Timur.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1985. “The Social Space and the Genesis of Groups.” Theory and Society 14 (6)(November 1985): 723-744.

________. 1991. Language and Symbolic Power (Editor oleh John B. Thompson). Cambridge: Polity Press.

________. 1993. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature (Editor oleh Randal Johnson). New York: Columbia University Press.

________. 1994. “Rethinking the State: Genesis and Structure of the Bureaucratic Field.” Sociology Theory 12 (1)(Maret 1994): 1-18.

________. 2004. “From the King’s House to the Reason of State: A Model of the Genesis of the Bureaucratic Field.” Constellations of the Blackwell Publishing, Ltd 11 (1)(2004): 16-36).

Breman, Jan. 1980. The Village on Java and the Early-Colonial State. Rotterdam: The Comparative Asian Studies Programme (CASP) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Caudri, Cornelie Marguerite Bramine. 1934. Tertiary Deposits of Soemba. Amsterdam: H.J. Paris.

Corner, Lorraine. 1989. “East and West Nusa Tenggara: Isolation and Poverty.” In Hal Hill (ed.), Unity and Diversity: Regional Economic Development in Indonesia since 1970. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Halaman 179-206.

Coser, Lewis A. 1971. Masters of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context. New York: Harcourt Brace Javanovich, Inc.

Dick, Howard dan kawan-kawan. 2002. The Emergence of the National Economy: An Economic History of Indonesia 1800-2000. Honolulu: Allen & Unwin dan University of Hawai’i Press.

Douglas, Mary. 1966. Purity and Danger. London: Routledge dan Kegan Paul.

Dove, Michael R. 1998. “Living Rubber, Dead Land, and Persisting System in Borneo: Indigenous Representations of Sustainability.” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-En Volkenkunde 154: 20-54.

Eldridge, J.E.T. (ed.). 1971. Max Weber: The Interpretation of Social Reality. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Evans-Pritchard, E.E. 1974. The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political Institutions of a Nilotic People (Seventh printing). New York dan Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Forshee, Jill Kathryn. 1996. Powerful Connections: Cloth, Identity, and Global Links in East Sumba, Indonesia. PhD Thesis, University of California.

________. 1998. “Sumba Asli: Fashioning Culture Along Expanded Exchange Circles.” Indonesia and the Malay World 26 (75): 106-123.

________. 2000. “Shifting Visions: Along the Routes of Sumba Cloth.” The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 1(2): 1-25.

________. 2001. Between the Folds: Stories of Cloth, Lives, and Travels from Sumba. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

________. 2002. “Tracing Troubled Times: Objects of Value and Narratives of Loss from Sumba and Timor Islands. Indonesia 74 (Oktober 2002):65-77

Forth, Gregory L. 1981. Rindi: An Ethnographic Study of a Traditional Domain in Eastern Sumba. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

________. 1982. “Sumbanese Finger Names: Some Comparative Remarks.”

________. 1983. “Blood, Milk and Coconut: A Study of Intra-Cultural Ritual Variation. Man 18 (4)(Desember 1983): 654-668.

________. 1991. Space and Place in Eastern Indonesia (Occasional Paper No 16). Canterbury: Centre of South-East Asian Studies University of Kent at Canterbury.

Fowler, Cynthia Twyford. 1999. The Creolization of Natives and Exotics: The Changing Symbolic and Functional Character of Culture and Agriculture in Kodi, West Sumba, Indonesia. Ph.D Thesis, University of Hawaii.

________. 2003. “The Ecological Implications of Ancestral Religion and Reciprocal Exchange in A Sacred Forest in Karendi (Sumba, Indonesia).” Worldviews 7 (3): 303-329.

Fox, James J. 1977. Harvest of the Palm: Ecological Change in Eastern Indonesia. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: Harvard University Press.

________. 1988. “Origin, Descent and Precedence in the Study of Austronesian Society.” Public Lecture: Leiden University. Paper for Public Lecture in Connection with De Wisselleerstoel Indonesische Studien Given on the 17th of March 1988, Leiden.

Geertz, Clifford. 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Goh, Taro. 1991. Sumba Bibliography. Canberra: Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific Studies, ANU.

Gunawan, Istutiah. 2000. Hierarchy and Balance: A Study of Wanokaka Social Organization. Canberra: Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, ANU.

Hadiz, Vedi R. and Daniel Dhakidae (ed.). 2006. Ilmu Sosial dan Kekuasaan di Indonesia. Jakarta: Equinox Publishing.

Hambarandi, Pala. 1982. Praktek-praktek Agama Marapu yang Masih Nampak dalam Kehidupan Anggota Jemaat Gereja Kristen Sumba-Ngallu. Skripsi Sarjana, Universitas Satyawacana Salatiga.

Haripranata, H., SJ. 1984. Cerita Sejarah Gereja Katolik Sumba dan Sumbawa. Ende: Arnoldus.

Heryanto, Ariel. 1988. “The Development of ‘Development’.” Indonesia 46 (Oktober 1988): 1-24.

Hoskins, Janet. 1987a. “The Headhunters as Hero: Local Traditions and their Reinterpretation in National History.” American Ethnologist 14 (4): 605-622.

________. 1987b. “Entering the Bitter House: Spirit Worship and Conversion in West Sumba.” Dalam Rita Smith Kipp dan Susan Roger (ed.) Indonesian Religions in Transition. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press. Halaman 136-160.

________. 1989a. “Why Do Ladies Sing the Blues? Indigo Dyeing, Cloth Production, and Gender Symbolism in Kodi.” Dalam Annette Weiner dan Jane Schneider (ed.) Cloth and Human Experience. Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press. Halaman 141-174.

________. 1989b. “On Losing and Getting a Head: Warfare, Exchange and Alliance in a Changing Sumba, 1888-1988.” American Ethnologist 16: 419-440.

________. 1993a. The Play of Time: Kodi Perspectives on Calendars, History, and Exchange. Berkeley: University of California Press.

________. 1993b. “Violence, Sacrifice, and Divination: Giving and Taking Life in Eastern Indonesia.” American Ethnologist 20 (1)(Februari 1993): 159-178.

________. 1996. “The Heritage of Headhunting: History, Ideology, and Violence on Sumba, 1890-1990.” Dalam Janet Hoskins (ed.) Headhunting and the Social Imagination in Southeast Asia. California: Stanford University Press. Halaman 216-248.

________. 1998. Biographical Objects: How Things Tell the Stories of People’s lives. New York dan London: Routledge.

________. 2001. Predatory Voyeurs: Tourists and “Tribal Violence” in Remote Indonesia. Draft Paper.

________. 2004. “Slaves, Brides and Other ‘Gifts’: Resistance, Marriage and Rank in Eastern Indonesia.” Slavery and Abolition 25 (2)(Augustus 2004): 90-107.

Jary, David dan Julia Jary. 1991. Collins Dictionary of Sociology. Harper Collins Publishers.

Kaartinen, Timo. 2000. “Bapa Raja: Equalizing and Hierarchizing Effects of the National Language.” Suomen Antropologi 25 (2)(Juni 2000): 6-19.

Kahin, George McT. 1949. “Indirect Rule in East Indonesia.” Pacific Affairs 22 (3)(September 1949): 227-238.

Kapita, Oemboe Hina. 1965. Sedjarah Pergumulan Indjil Di Sumba. Waingapu: Geredja Kristen Sumba.

________. 1976a. Masyarakat Sumba dan Adat Istiadatnya. Waingapu: Panitia Penerbit Naskah-naskah Kebudayaan Daerah Sumba Dewan Penata Layanan Gereja Kristen Sumba.

________. 1976b. Sumba di dalam Jangkauan Jaman. Waingapu: Panitia Penerbit Naskah-naskah Kebudayaan Daerah Sumba Dewan Penata Layanan Gereja Kristen Sumba.

________. 1979. Lii Ndai: Rukuda Da Kabihu Dangu La Pahunga Lodu. Waingapu: Panitia Penerbit Naskah-naskah Kebudayaan Daerah Sumba Dewan Penata Layanan Gereja Kristen Sumba.

________. 1982. Kamus Sumba/Kambera-Indonesia. Waingapu: Panitia Penerbit Naskah-naskah Kebudayaan Daerah Sumba Dewan Penata Layanan Gereja Kristen Sumba.

Keane, Webb. 1990. The social Life of Representations: Ritual Speech and Exchange in Anakalang, Sumba, Eastern Indonesia. PhD Thesis, University of Chicago.

________. 1991. “Delegated Voice: Ritual Speech, Risk, and the Making of Marriage Alliances in Anakalang.” American Ethnologist 18: 311-330.

________. 1994. “The Value of Words and the Meaning of Things in Eastern Indonesia Exchange.” Man (N.S.) 29 (3)(September 1994): 605-629.

________. 1995a. “The Spoken House: Text, Act, and Object in Eastern Indonesia.” American Ethnologist 22 (1)(Februari 1995): 102-124.

________. 1995b. “Religious Change and Historical Reflection in Anakalang, West Sumba, Indonesia. Southeast Asian Studies 26 (2)(September 1995): 289-306.

________. 1997a. Sign of Recognition: Powers and Hazards of Representation in an Indonesia Society. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

________. 1997b. “Knowing One’s Place: National Language and the Idea of the Local in Eastern Indonesia.” Cultural Anthropology 12 (1): 37-63.

________. 1997c. “From Fetishism to Sincerity: On Agency, the Speaking Subject, and Their Historicity in the Context of Religious Conversion. Comparative Studies in Society and History 39 (4)(Oktober 1997): 674-693.

Keers, W. 1948. An Anthropological Survey of the Eastern Little Sunda Islands, The Negrito’s of the Eastern Little Sunda Islands, The Proto-Malay of the Eastern Little Sunda Islands. Amasterdam: Uitgave van Het Indisch Instituut.

Kerkvliet, Benedict J. Tria. 1986. Everyday Resistance to Injustice in a Philippine Village.” Dalam James C. Scott dan Benedict J. Tria Kerkvliet (ed.). Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance in South-East Asia. London: Frank Cass and Company, Ltd. Halaman 107-123.

Kipp, Rita Smith. 1993. Dissociated Identities: Ethnicity, Religion, and Class in an Indonesian Society. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.

Kuipers, Joel Corneal. 1982. Weyewa Ritual Speech: A Study of Language and Ceremonial Interaction in Eastern Indonesia. Ph.D. Thesis, Yale University.

________. 1986. “Talking about Troubles: Gender Differences in Weyewa Speech Use.” American Ethnologist 13 (3): 448-462.

________. 1990. Power in Performance: The Creation of Textual Authority in Weyewa Ritual Speech. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

________. 1998. Language, Identity, and Marginality in Indonesia: The Changing Nature of Ritual Speech on the Island of Sumba. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Laksono, P.M. dan kawan-kawan. 1998. Kekayaan, Agama dan Kekuasaan: Identitas dan Konflik di Indonesia (Timur) Modern. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.

Laksono, P.M. 2002. The Common Ground in the Kei Islands: Eggs from One Fish and One Bird. Yogyakarta: Galang Press.

Latif, Yudi dan Idi Subandy Ibrahim (ed.). 1996. Bahasa dan Kekuasaan: Politik Wacana di Panggung Orde Baru. Bandung: Mizan.

Luckas, Y., CSSR. tt. Sejarah Gereja Katolik Di Sumba dan Sumbawa. Ende: Arnoldus.

Makambombu, Stepanus. 2001. Budaya Menyimpan Mayat: Suatu Pemaknaan Terhadap Perilaku Masyarakat Kotaku Menyimpan Mayat dalam Waktu Lama. MA Thesis, Universitas Satya Wacana.

Mauss, Marcel. 1954. The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies. New York: Free Press.

Mubyarto. 2005. Ekonomi Terjajah. Yogyakarta: Pustep-UGM.

Needham, Rodney. 1980. “Principles and Variations in the Structure of Sumbanese Society.” Dalam James J. Fox (ed.). The Flow of Life: Essay on Eastern Indonesia. Cambridge, Massachusetts, and London: Harvard University Press. Halaman 21-47.

________. 1983. Sumba and the Slave Trade (Working Paper No. 31). Melbourne: Monash University.

________. 1984. “The Transformation of Prescriptive Systems in Eastern Indonesia. Dalam P.E. de Josselin de Jong (ed.) Unity in Diversity: Indonesia as a Field of Anthropological Study. Dordrecht: Foris.

Nooteboom, C. 1940. Oost-Soemba: Een Volkenkundige Studie. Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff.

Onvlee, L. [1949] 1977. “The Construction of the Mangili Dam: Notes on the Social Organization of Eastern Sumba” (Terjemahan dari Bahasa Belanda oleh D.H. van der Elst). Dalam P.E. De Josselin de Jong (ed.). Structural Anthropology in the Netherlands. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Halaman 150-163.

________. 1980. “The Significance of Livestock on Sumba” (Terjemahan dari Bahasa Belanda oleh James J. Fox dan Henny Fokker-Bakker). Dalam James J. Fox (ed.). The Flow of Life: Essay on Eastern Indonesia. Cambridge, Massachusetts, dan London: Harvard University Press. Halaman 195-207.

Pemberton, John. 1994. On the Subject of Java. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Persoon, Gerard. 1998. “Isolated Groups or Indigenous Peoples: Indonesia and the International Discourse.” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-En Volkenkunde 154: 281-304.

Reid, Anthony. 1985. “From Betel-Chewing to Tobacco-Smoking in Indonesia.” Asian Studies 44 (3)(Mie 1985): 529-547.

Renard-Clamagirand. 1992. “Sacrifice Among the Wewewa: Dialogue with the Ancestors, Relations between the Living.” Conference on Sacrifice in Eastern Indonesia, University of Oslo, Juni 19-23, 1992.

Saul, Jamie. t.t. “Tattoos of Sumba.” http://indoman.com.au/sumba/sumbatat.htm

Schoorl, J.W. 1997. Kebudayaan dan Perubahan Suku Muyu dalam Arus Modernisasi Irian Jaya (Terjemahan). Jakarta: Grasindo.

Schulte-Nordholt, Nico Schulte. 1987. Ojo Dumeh: Kepemimpinan Lokal dalam Pembangunan. Jakarta: Sinar Harapan.

Scott, James C. 1985. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Form of Peasant Resistance. New Haven: Yale University Press.

________. 1986. “Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance.” Dalam James C. Scott and Benedict J. Tria Kerkvliet (ed.). Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance in South-East Asia. London: Frank Cass and Company, Ltd. Halaman 5-35.

________. 1998. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven dan London: Yale University Press.

Sekimoto, Teruo. 1990. “State ritual and the Village: An Indonesian case study.” In Reading Southeast Asia, 1(1990): 57-73.

Siegel, James T. 1998. A New Criminal Type in Jakarta: Counter-Revolution Today. Durham dan London: Duke University Press.

Soelarto, B. t.t.a. Pustaka Budaya Sumba (Jilid Satu). Jakarta: Proyek Pengembangan Media Kebudayaan Ditjen Kebudayaan Departemen P & K Republik Indonesia.

________. t.t.b. Pustaka Budaya Sumba (Jilid Dua). Jakarta: Proyek Pengembangan Media Kebudayaan Ditjen Kebudayaan Departemen P & K Republik Indonesia.

Spivak, Gayatry Chakravorty. 1988. “Can the Subaltern Speak?” Dalam Cary Nelson dan Lawrence Grossberg (ed.). Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. London: Macmillan Education, Ltd. Halaman 271-313.

Srinivas, M.N. 1977. Hidup di Desa: Suatu Sumber Pengertian Bagi Ahli Ilmu Sosial (Terjemahan). Yogyakarta: Lembaga Kependudukan Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Sullivan, John. 1992. Local Government and Community in Java: An Urban Case-Study. Singapore: Oxford University Press.

Tay, Dundu. 1988. “Pokok-pokok Pembahasan Menyangkut Adat Istiadat Sumba (Adat Perkawinan, Adat Kematian/Penguburan).” Makalah Sidang Paripurna. Konferensi Komisi Adat Sesi Paripurna I di Kecamatan Pahunga Lodu, 1988.

Timmer, Jaap. 2000. Living with Intricate Futures: Order and Confusion in Imyan Worlds, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Nijmegen: Centre for Pacific and Asian Studies.

Truzzi, Marcello (ed.). 1971. Sociology: The Classic Statements. New York: Random House.

Tsing, Anna Lowenhaupt. 1993. In the Realm of the Diamond Queen: Marginality in an Out-of-the-Way Place. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Tunggul, Nggodu. 2000. Lintasan Budaya Sumba: Etika Moralitas.

________. 2001. Aspek Budaya: Sumba Timur.

________. 2004. Etika dan Moralitas dalam Budaya Sumba. Jakarta: Pro Millenio Center.

van Hout, Itie. 1999. Indonesian Weaving between Heaven and Earth: Religious Implications of Bird Motifs on Textiles. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute.

van Wouden, F.A.E. 1968. Types of Social Structure in Eastern Indonesia (Terjemahan Inggris oleh Rodney Needham). The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

________. [1956] 1977. “Local Groups and Double Descent in Kodi, West Sumba.” Dalam P.E. De Josselin de Jong (ed.). Structural Anthropology in the Netherlands. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Halaman 184-222.

________. 1985. Klen, Mitos, dan Kekuasaan (Terjemahan). Jakarta: Grafitipress.

Vel, Jacqueline A.C. 1992. “Umbu Hapi versus Umbu Vincent: Legal Pluralism as an Arsenal in Village Combats.” Dalam F. von Benda-Beckmann and M. van der Velde (ed.). Law as a Resource in Agrarian Struggles. Wageningen: Wageningen Agricultural University. Halaman. 23-43.

________. 1994. The Uma-Economy: Indigenous Economics and Development Work in Lawonda, Sumba (Eastern-Indonesia). Ph.D. Thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University.

________. 2001. “Tribal Battle in a Remote Island: Crisis and Violence in Sumba (Eastern Indonesia).” Indonesia 72 (October 2001): 141-158.

________. 2005. “Pilkada in East Sumba: An Old Rivalry in a New Democratic Setting.” Indonesia 80 (Oktober 2005): 81-107.

Vincent, Joan. 1978. “Political Anthropology: Manipulative Strategies.” Annual Review of Anthropology 7(1978): 175-194.

________. 1990. Anthropology and Politics: Visions, Traditions, and Trends. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.

Vincent, Joan (ed.). 2002. The Anthropology of Politics: A Reader in Ethnography, Theory, and Critique. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, Ltd.

Vink, Markus. 2003. “The World’s Oldest Trade”: Dutch Slavery and Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean in the Seventeenth Century.” Journal of World History 14 (2)(Juni 2003): 131-177.

von Benda-Beckmann, Keebet. 1984. The Broken Stairways to Consensus: Village Justice and State Courts in Minangkabau. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.

Webb, R.A.F. Paul. 1986. Palms and the Cross: Socio-economic Development in Nusa Tenggara. Townsville: Centre for Southeast Asian Studies, James Cook University of North Queensland.

Weber, Max. 1947. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. New York: Free Press.

Wellem, F.D. 1995. Injil dan Merapu: Studi Historis-Teologis tentang Perjumpaan Injil dengan Masyarakat Sumba pada Periode 1876-1990. Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Jakarta.

Widiyatmika, Munandjar dan kawan-kawan. 1984. Sejarah Revolusi Kemerdekaan (1945 s/d 1949) Daerah Nusa Tenggara Timur. Kupang: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Proyek Inventarisasi dan Dokumentasi Daerah Nusa Tenggara Timur 1979/1980.

Wolf, Eric R. 1999. Envisioning Power: Ideologies of Dominance and Crisis. London: University of California Press.

Yamashita, Shinji. 1994. “Manipulating Ethnic Tradition: The Funeral Ceremony, Tourism, and Television among the Toraja of Sulawesi.” Indonesia 58 (Oktober 1994): 69-82.

Yang, Shu-Yuan. 2005. “Imagining the State: An Ethnographic Study.” Sage Publication 6(4): 487-516.

Yewangoe, A.A. 1980. “Korban dalam Agama Marapu.” Peninjau 7(4): 52-67.

Surat Keputusan Gubernur Nusa Tenggara Timur, Nomor 66/1/33, tertanggal 5 Juni 1962, swapraja (wilayah otonom) Rindi-Mangili berubah menjadi Kecamatan Pahunga Lodu demi keperluan administratif resmi.

Surat Keputusan Gubernur Kepala Daerah Tingkat I Nusa Tenggara Timur Nomor 20 Tahun 1994 tentang Pengesahan Pembentukan Kelurahan-kelurahan persiapan di Provinsi Daerah Tingkat I Nusa Tenggara Timur.

Surat Keputusan Bupati Sumba Timur, Nomor 598/410/1546/11/Pemdes/2002/13 November 2002 tentang Pengangkatan secara Resmi Kepala Desa Kamutuk.

Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 1 Tahun 1957 tentang Pokok-Pokok Pemerintahan Daerah.

Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 69 Tahun 1958 tentang Pembentukan Derah-daerah Tingkat II dalam Wilayah Daerah-daerah Tingkat I Bali, Nusa Tenggara Barat dan Timur.

Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 5 Tahun 1979 tentang Peme­rintahan Desa.

Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 22 Tahun 1999 tentang Peme­rintahan Daerah.

Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 3 Tahun 2007 tentang Pembentukan Kabupaten Sumba Tengah di Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur.

Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 16 Tahun 2007 tentang Pembentukan Kabupaten Sumba Barat Daya dan Sumba Barat di Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur.

Scroll to Top
×